The great myth is now subject to serious empirical doubt. That myth underlies the fact that Jew hatred in Europe is on the rise. The myth: it is due to a rise in nationalist and fascist leanings. The reality of the most recent surveys is that European Jew hatred (not tied to anti-Israel sentiment necessarily) is the highest among Muslims. And the more religious a Muslim you are (i.e., the more Sharia compliant), the greater the likelihood you hate Jews.